A Lexicon to Herodotus

I had for some months been preparing the materials of a lexicon to Herodotus, when in May 1935 I acquired the complete collection of word-slips to Herodotus made in the years 1912-14 by Ludwig Kalpers and Fritz Nawak under the direction of Professor Wolfgang Aly of Freiburg with financial assistance from the 'Freiburger Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft'. From this material, abandoning my own, I compiled the present work, which attempts to combine the advantages of a lexicon with those of an index: it is an index in so far as it notes every occurrence of every word or name used by Herodotus, καί alone excepted; it is a lexicon in the sense that all words are translated and the references classified by meaning and construction.

In one respect such a combination was impossible. The form of the words used by Herodotus, their cases, tenses and persons, could only be documented fully if all references were stated twice over, arranged first by meaning and then by form. For some words, such as αὐτός, εἰμί, ὁ, ἡ, τό and ὅς, where the meanings are few, arrangement by form and meaning has been combined. Else-where this was impracticable, and I have contented myself with prefacing to all verb-articles a list of the tenses in use, with references for those occurring rarely or otherwise remarkable; and I have appended to all articles on simple verbs a list of the prepositions which Herodotus compounds with them, so that his full paradigm for any stem can be determined with little trouble. Yet in spite of these aids the materials from which this book is drawn must retain independent value for those who are interested specially in the forms of the words which Herodotus uses; and for that reason my word-slips have been placed in the library of Trinity College, where they will be permanently available.

The third Oxford text of Hude (1926) has been taken as a basis for the work, and the chapters and paragraphs referred to are those of Hude. I have not however restricted myself to the readings in Hude's text, but except in the case of the very commonest words I have given a place to all variants of the Florentine or Roman MS. families which seemed to have the slightest likelihood of truth. Conjectures, on the other hand, are not included unless received by Hude. In this way the evidence is presented as objectively as possible. All variants, or readings to which there exists a variant, are enclosed in round brackets ( ); square brackets [ ] denote conjectures and those words, uses or passages which for any reason are not Herodotean, either as being spurious or as occurring in oracles, inscriptions or quotations.

In case the usage of Herodotus in narrative and in speeches should show differences, I have marked with an asterisk * all words, meanings or passages which occur in direct speech. For certain purposes use may also be found in the designation by an obelisk † of words not cited in the ninth edition of Liddell and Scott from any author before Herodotus, though the uncertainty of literary dates in the fifth century occasionally renders this distinction arbitrary.1 The meanings of words are arranged as seemed in each case most convenient; they do not necessarily stand in their historical or even logical order, which in dealing with a single author would have little interest.

The only pretence of a lexicon to Herodotus hitherto published is the ancient work of Schweighäuser,2 and this is no more than a pretence. I have counted more than twelve hundred different words used by Herodotus which it entirely omits, its treatment of the rest is no less defective, and its errors have inquinated the references to Herodotus in Greek dictionaries from its own day to ours. The lexicon of Cary3 is no better than a translation of Schweighäuser; and a work by Jacobitz, based on Schweig-häuser and including proper names, was not published further than ἀκριβέως.1 The manuscript of a complete index compiled by J. Tkatsch of Vienna2, which was purchased from a bookseller after the author's death by Professor Ludwig Radermacher, is likely to remain unpublished; while a still uncompleted collection of slips by Otto Hoffmann, formerly of Breslau and now of Mänster, mentioned in Schöne's Repertorium, is not lexicographical but concerned with dialect. On the following page will be found a list of studies on special lexicographical points.

A large part of the expense of this book has been defrayed by the Master and Fellows of my College from the Rouse Ball Fund, assistance without which it could probably never have been published. I thank also two senior colleagues, Mr A. S. F. Gow and Mr E. Harrison. It was in conversation with the former that the project of making the book first arose in my mind, and I have frequently asked and taken his advice, while Mr Harrison has not only read the proofs but encouraged and assisted me in many ways, καὶ παρακαλούμενος καὶ ἄκλητος.


1 I treat Aeschylus as wholly earlier than Herodotus, but Sophocles and the Hippocratic corpus as wholly later.

2 Lexicon Herodoteum, instruxit Johannes Schweighäuser , Strasbourg, etc. 1824; reprinted at London the same year in Valpy's series, with an appendix of five grammatical treatises, and without additions at Oxford in 1840. I need only mention Aemilius Portus Dictionarium Ionicum Graeco-Latinum, quod indicem in omnes Herodoti libros continet etc. Frankfurt 1603, reprinted in 1658, 1810, 1815, 1821 and 1823.

3 A Lexicon to Herodotus, Greek and English , Henry Cary, Oxford 1843. sup1

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